Karle is 3km north of the town of Karle
Caves Junction, 11 km from Lonavala on NH4. It is a Buddhist
cave. It is the largest and the best preserved. In the porch
of the cave, dividing the three doorways, are panels of figures
in six couples, presumed to have been the wealthy patrons
of the hall. Two rows of octagonal columns with pot-shaped
bases divide the interior into three, forming a wide central
aisle and, on the outside, a hall that allowed devotees to
circumambulate the monolithic stupa at the back. Above each
pillar’s fluted capital kneels a finely carved elephant mounted
by two riders, one with arms draped over the other’s shoulders.
Amazingly, perishable remnants survive from the time when
the hall was in use; teak ribs on the vaulted ceiling show
that the stone was carved to resemble a wooden structural
model. Surmounting the stupa are the remains of a carved wooden
Deep in the semi-arid hills of the Deccan,
lie the rock-cut caves of AJANTA. It was only in the 19th
century, that the Ajanta group of caves, lying deep within
the Sahyadri hills, buried deep under a blanket of creepers
and jungle, cut into the curved mountain side, above the Waghora
river, were discovered.
Many of the caves house panels depicting stories from the
Jatakas, a rich mine of tales of the several incarnations
of the Buddha. Images of nymphs and princesses amongst others,
are also elaborately portrayed. The 29 caves were built as
secluded retreats of the Buddhist monks, who taught and performed
rituals in the Chaityas and Viharas. Using simple tools like
hammer and chisel, the monks carved out the impressive figures
adorning the walls of these structures. Exquisite wall paintings
and sculptures speak volumes of the India of yore.
Cave 1 houses some of the most well - preserved wall paintings
which include two great Boddhisattvas, Padmapani and Avalokiteshvara.
Caves 2 , 16 and 17 also contain amazing paintings, while
Caves 1, 4, 17, 19, 24 and 26 boast of some of the most divine
sculptures. The flying ‘apsara’ of Cave 17, and the image
of Buddha preaching in Cave 17, are a couple of unforgettable
works of art. The Ajanta caves and the treasures they house,
are a landmark in the overall development of Buddhism as such.
The Ellora caves lie 30 kms northwest of
Aurangabad. In all 34, Buddhist, Jain and Hindu caves in number,
have an amazing wealth of sculpture. These are carved into
the sides of a basaltic hill. The finest specimens of cave
- temple architecture, they house elaborate facades and exquisitely
adorned interiors. These structures representing the three
faiths of Hinduism, Buddhism and Jainism, were carved during
the 350 AD to 700 AD period. The 12 caves to the south are
Buddhist, the 17 in the center dedicated to Hinduism, and
the 5 caves to the north are Jain.
The sculpture in the Buddhist caves accurately convey the
nobility, grace and serenity inherent in the Buddha. Most
of the caves are Viharas or Monastery halls used by the monks
for study, solitary meditation and worship.
The Kailasa temple in Cave 16 an architectural wonder, is
Ellora’s masterpiece. The entire structure having been carved
out of a monolith, the process taking over a century to finish.
This mountain - abode of Lord Shiva, is in all probability,
the world's largest monolith, the gateway, pavilion, assembly
hall, sanctum and tower, all hewn out of a single rock. Gigantic,
though it is, it remains one of the most delicate and intricate
ancient works of art. The Dumar Lena cave resembles the famous
cave - temple at Elephanta, and is dedicated to Lord Shiva.
The Jain caves are about a mile away from
the Kailasa temple, amongst which Cave 32, houses a beautiful
shrine adorned with fine carvings of a lotus flower on the
roof, and a ‘yakshi’ on a lion under a mango - tree, while
Caves 32 and 34 contain grand statues of Parasnath. The other
Jain caves sport the images of Tirthankaras, and one of them,
also, has a seated figure of Mahavira, so deeply immersed
in meditation that creepers have grown over his body.